Networking Fundamentals Quick Notes

Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – OSI Model based Troubleshooting (Basic)

Some common issues: Unable to connect to the Internet Unable to use a particular network application Unable to access another computer on the same network Unable to access shared folders or printers General questions: Was it working before? Any recent changes made? Does it happen to a single computer or all computers? Is it application …

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Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – General Practices & Tips

“Computer”, “Network” or “Internet” not working is NOT a clear definition of a problem; appropriate probing always helps in isolating a problem and to determine a permanent solution. Devices such as desktops, laptops & smartphone are usually connected to the internal network at very high speeds yet a single Internet connectivity is shared across all …

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Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – APPENDIX: Utilities & Services

WHOIS Tool Download from https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/downloads/whois Extract the compressed file to C:Tools To view details for a domain: CMD > CD C:ToolsWhoIs> whois domainame Output listing ownership of a domain name TCPView TCPView is a 3rd party GUI utility similar to NETSTAT. Downloadhttps://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/downloads/tcpview Extract to C:Tools Execute C:ToolsTcpview.exe Sample TCPVIEW Utility Output Network Monitor Network Monitor is …

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Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – Lab Manual

Connect two computers using a patch cable Note: Use a Wired Network Adapter to complete this exercise; disable Wireless network adapter (if any) to avoid confusion. Step 1: Connect Patch cable to both Ethernet Ports Try using a straight-through cable; use a cross-over cable if straight-through does Not work. Observe LED indicators on the NIC. …

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Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – Wide Area Networks Part 2

SOHO Router SOHO Router, wired & wireless devices Small Office Home Office or Residential/Home Router, a.k.a Residential or Home Router. Simple “Network address translation (NAT)” device with facilities such as an Unmanaged Network Switch + Access Point + DSL Modem + SIM Ports + USB Ports… Simple & easy to Use, requires almost no technical …

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Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – Wide Area Networks Part 1

Wide Area Networks Establishing connectivity over long distances require specific technical infrastructure. A. Dial-up Networking, DSL, Cable Internet, Wi-Max are some of the popular choices across home users, small & medium businesses for Internet access. B. ISDN, Leased Lines are considered for medium to large office networks & service providers. Wide Area Networks are used …

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Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – Name Resolution

Name Resolution Friendly Names are used for identifying hosts in IP networks, instead of IP addresses.  Friendly names must be resolved to IP address before communication. Name resolution is the process of resolving names to IP address (for example: LAB01 = 192.168.1.2or www.example.com = 1.2.3.4). Multiple methods such as HOSTS, DNS, WINS, DDNS available for …

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Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – Protocols Part 2

TCP & UDP TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) Operates at Layer 4. Provides reliable, orderly, flow-controlled and error-checked delivery of packets. Connection Oriented. Suitable for critical applications that require guaranteed delivery of packets. Popular applications that utilize TCP include Webbrowsers, email client software, etc. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) Operates at Layer 4. Connection-less. No error checking …

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Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – Protocols Part 1

Protocols Definition – “Set of rules for communication”. Described by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) through various standards. Types Proprietary Owned by an organization, usually has licensing restrictions. Example: NETBEUI, IPX/SPX, AppleTalk. Open Standard Publicly available for implementation, depends on license. Example: TCP, IP. Definitions Non-Routable Has no network address, only host address. Suitable for …

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Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – Connectivity Options Part 3

Wi-Fi Connectivity using Wi-Fi Wi-Fi, a trademark of Wi-Fi Alliance. Refers to collection of Wireless Technologies related to IEEE 802 standards. Works similar to a radio for connectivity, using specific radio frequencies. Works best in open environments, barriers limit distance & speed. Recommended where wired connections are not feasible. Also referred to as “P2P Network” …

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