Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – Lab Manual

Connect two computers using a patch cable

Note: Use a Wired Network Adapter to complete this exercise; disable Wireless network adapter (if any) to avoid confusion.

Step 1: Connect Patch cable to both Ethernet Ports

Try using a straight-through cable; use a cross-over cable if straight-through does Not work. Observe LED indicators on the NIC.

Note: If you get a popup “Do you want to turn on network discovery and file sharing for all public networks?”, Select “No, make the network I am connected to a private network…”.

  • Confirm if they are connected:
  • CMD > wmic nic where netenabled=true get name, speed, macaddress

Check for speed value, indicating connectivity

  • CMD > Powershell> Get-NetAdapter | Select-Object -Property Name, InterfaceDescription, MacAddress, FullDuplex, LinkSpeed

Check for Duplex & Speed status, similar to above

  • START > RUN > NCPA.CPL, Right-click “Local Area Connection”, select “Status”

Local Area Connection, Connectivity Status & Speed

  • Step 2: Configure IP
  • View IP Configuration:
    • CMD > “ipconfig” on both computers to know the IP addresses

Scroll to view details of wired connection: APIPA IPv4 (Computer 1)

Scroll to view details of wired connection: APIPA IPv4 (Computer 2)

In current scenario both computers are connected directly; since there are no DHCP servers available, both computers have self-assigned IP addresses (APIPA).

  • Test connectivity using PING utility (Disable Firewall on both computers temporarily)
  • CMD > “ping 254.150.24” (Each other computer’s IP address) or
  • CMD > “ping -4 COMPUTERNAME” (Each other computer’s computer name)

Observe results, successful communication

Assigning an IP address is optional, as both computers are already communicating with other; follow the instructions below to assign static IP addresses:

  • Assign Static IP Address, Microsoft Windows (Computer 1)
    • START > RUN > NCPA.CPL
    • Right-click “Local Area Connection”, select “Properties”
      • Select “Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)” from the list and Click “Properties”
      • Select “Use the following IP address:”
        • Enter “168.1.5” in “IP address:”
        • Enter “255.255.0” in “Subnet mask:”
      • Select “OK”
      • Select “Close”

IPv4 Properties

  • Assign Static IP Address, Microsoft Windows (Computer 2)
    • START > RUN > NCPA.CPL
    • Right-click “Local Area Connection”, select “Properties”
      • Select “Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4)” and Click “Properties”
      • Select “Use the following IP address:”
        • Enter “168.1.6” in “IP address:”
        • Enter “255.255.0” in “Subnet mask:”
      • Select “OK”
      • Select “Close”
  • Test connectivity using PING utility (Disable Firewall on both computers temporarily if required)
  • CMD > “ping 168.1.6” (Each other computer’s IP address) or
  • CMD > “ping -4 COMPUTERNAME” (Each other computer’s computer name)

Observe replies from each other computer

  • Step 3: To Share Folders
  • Create a new folder, for example: C:\Office
  • Right-Click FOLDERNAME, Select “Properties“
  • Select Sharing Tab

  • Select “Advanced Sharing”
  • Select “Share this folder”
  • Select “Permissions”
  • Select “Allow” (Image above) – Full Control
  • Select “Apply”, Select “OK” Twice
  • Select “Close”

Repeat on the other computer as well.

  • Step 4: To access the shared folder
  • START > RUN > \\COMPUTERNAME

Input to access another computer by computer name

  • Enter Credentials as required

Restrictions Popup

Note: If above popup is displayed, then set a password for the user account on the computer that is being accessed (Windows requires password for user accounts, when accessed over network).

Shared folder on a remote computer

  • Files may be copied to the shared folder

Tips: It is NOT recommended to share an entire drive (though it is possible), rather share specific folders with appropriate permissions.

  • To View computers on a network:
    • CMD > net view

Output listing computers on a network

  • To View shares available on a local computer:
    • CMD > net share

Output listing shares on a local computer

  • START > RUN > FSMGMT.MSC

GUI listing shares, sessions & Open files

  • To view open files (if connected to a remote share and files are open)
    • CMD > openfiles

Sharing & Accessing Printers

To install a printer (example):

  • START > RUN > CONTROL PRINTERS
  • Select “Add a printer”
  • Select “The printer that I want isn’t listed”
  • Select “Add a local printer or network printer with manual settings”, Select “Next”
  • Select “Use an existing port:”, Select “LPT1: Local Port” and Select “Next”
  • Select a Manufacturer / Model from the list displayed (for example: HP > HP Color LaserJet 1600 Class Driver)”, Select “Next”
  • Specify “HP Printer Demo” under “Printer name:”, Select “Next”
  • Select “Do not share this printer”, Select “Next” & Select “Finish”

To share a printer:

  • Select any printer, for example “HP Printer Demo”
  • Right-click and Select “Printer Properties”,  Select “Sharing” tab
  • Select “Share this printer” and Specify “My Network Printer” under “Share name:”

Printer Properties

  • Select “Apply” and Select “OK”

To access a shared printer:

  • START > RUN >\\COMPUTERNAME

View list of shared resources available in a network

  • Double-click on the shared printer, for example: “My Network Printer”

Note: Printer drivers are automatically installed, if the device drivers for selected model is included with the operating system; if not, printer driver media or source will be required to complete the printer installation.

Setting up DHCP Server (Using a Home Router)

  • Navigate to DHCP Server Settings or similar (depending on the model)
  • Set Range (Use a range different from other routers nearby or from common settings)
    • Start: 168.5.2
    • End: 168.5.50
    • Lease time: 2 daysor so
    • DNS Servers
      • Primary: 8.8.8
      • Secondary: 8.4.4

DHCP Settings on a specific SOHO Router

Note: DNS settings can be implemented at Router level or at each device level.

  • Use ipconfig /release& ipconfig /renew to apply changes (Client Computers).
  • Setup Wireless Network (Infrastructure Mode)

Tip: Most home routers have the IP address set as 192.168.1.1, 192.168.2.1, etc. (192.168.x.x range). Home routers are managed through a web browser, by typing the URL as “192.168.1.1”. Similarly usernames may be as simple as “admin” with password as “password” or no password at in for most models. Refer to product documentation for exact IP address, username and password.

  • Logon & Navigate to WLAN or Wireless Settings or Wi-Fi Settings page (depending on model)

Wireless Settings on a specific SOHO Router

  • If all devices in the network support IEEE 802.11N, then it is recommended to set the “band” as “N” (“G” may be used for backward compatibility if there are IEEE 802.11G clients). Similar for other IEEE 802.11 standards.

Note: On routers supporting other IEEE 802.11 standards such as IEEE 802.11a or IEEE 802.11ac, there may be additional options not included here. Also different SSID can be set for 2.4 GHz & 5 GHz, if the router support multiple frequencies.

  • Use ipconfig /release& ipconfig /renew to apply changes (Client Computers).

Additional Settings (Depending on model):

  • MAC Filtering: Facility to “limit” client devices by specifying MAC addresses (allows devices to connect only if the MAC addresses match, preventing unauthorized computers / devices to be a part of a network).
  • Port Forwarding: Allow a particular service on a computer in an internal network, to be accessible from public network. For example, a computer running a web server on the internal network can be made accessible from external network.
  • DMZ(Demilitarized Zone): Allow a specific computer from an internal network to be accessible to the public network (high risk); for example, a computer running multiple services or if it requires almost most ports to be open, can be kept in DMZ. 
  • Parental Control: Control Internet usage, usually through Whitelists, blacklists, Time limits, etc.
  • Guest Access & Virtual WAP: Facility to set limited access for clients/guests.
  • MAC Clone: Facility to use a different MAC address instead of integrated MAC Address.

Note: Some home routers may have the facility to keep different SSID’s, for home & guest networks.

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