Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – Protocols Part 1

Protocols

  • Definition – “Set of rules for communication”.
  • Described by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) through various standards.
  • Types
    • Proprietary
      • Owned by an organization, usually has licensing restrictions.
      • Example: NETBEUI, IPX/SPX, AppleTalk.
    • Open Standard
      • Publicly available for implementation, depends on license.
      • Example: TCP, IP.

Definitions

  • Non-Routable
    • Has no network address, only host address.
    • Suitable for small networks.
    • Example: NETBEUI, DLC, LAT.
  • Routable Protocol
    • Has host & network address.
    • Packets routed from one network to another, based on routing table.
    • Example: IP, IPX, AppleTalk.
  • Routing Protocol
    • Used for building routing tables, in routers.
    • Example: RIP, OSPF, IGRP.

Reference(s):

Proprietary Protocols

NETBEUI

  • NETBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) protocol is designed for LAN.
  • Popularly used for networking legacy operating systems such as Microsoft Windows 95, NT, 98.

IPX/SPX

  • IPX (Layer 3) /SPX (Layer 4) – Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange.
  • Used in Novell NetWare Networks and Microsoft Windows (Older versions).

AppleTalk

  • Protocol used in older Macintosh computers.
  • Automatic address scheme & routing.

Note: NETBEUI, IPX/SPX & AppleTalk are obsolete and included here for reference.

Open Standard

TCP/IP

  • Free, includes many open standard protocols.
  • Routable Protocol.
  • Widely adopted in almost every modern operating system & devices.

Protocol Binding

  • Minimum of one protocol is required for network connectivity between devices / computers.
  • Bound protocol can be routable or non-routable.
  • Multiple protocols can be bound to a single network adapter.  
  • Services are bound to protocols.  

Computer with Single NIC & Multiple Protocols bound

 For example:

  • Client can communicate using NETBEUI protocol (Microsoft Windows 9x).
  • Client can communicate using IPX/SPX protocol (Novell NetWare).
  • Client can communicate using TCP/IP protocol (Unix, Linux).

Note: Most of the operating systems support TCP/IP (IPv4 & IPv6), eliminating the need for NETBEUI or IPX/SPX. Above is an example of a legacy network for understanding purposes.

 

Computer with Single NIC & TCP/IP protocol versions

For example:

Computers can communicate using TCP/IP v4 or TCP/IP v6 protocol with each other, depending on the protocol installed & available on respective computers.

Note: Internet runs on TCP/IP v4, some servers/websites support TCP/IP v6.

Individual protocols can be bound to separate adapters:

Computer with 2 NIC, each bound to different TCP/IP versions

  • To view protocol(s) bound to all NIC:
    • CMD > Powershell > Get-NetAdapterBinding| Format-List

Output listing protocols & services bound to all adapters

  • To view protocol(s) bound to a particular NIC:
    • CMD > Powershell > Get-NetAdapterBinding – Name “CONNECTIONNAME”| Format-List

Output listing protocols & services bound to a specific adapter – d) TCP/IPv4, C)TCP/IPv6, b) File and Printer sharing for Microsoft Networks, a) Client for Microsoft Networks and others

  • TCP/IPv4 is a protocol stack required for IPv4 connections.
  • TCP/IPv6 is a protocol stack required for IPv6 connections.
  • File and Printer sharing for Microsoft Networks is a service required for sharing folders, printers and other resources (Microsoft Networks & Microsoft Compatible Networks).
  • Client for Microsoft Networks is a service required for accessing resources available on remote computers (Microsoft Networks & Microsoft Compatible Networks).

In simple terms:

  • Client for Microsoft Networks Service is bound to TCP/IPv4 & TCP/IPv6.
  • File and Printer Sharing Service is bound to TCP/IPv4 & TCP/IPv6.
  • & D. TCP/IPv4 & TCP/IPv6 is bound to Local Area Connection (which refers to one NIC).

Note: There are many protocols & services bound as per example, not covered here.

IP

  • Internet Protocol, Operates at Layer 3.
  • Connection-less Protocol.
  • Logical Addressing & Routing.
  • Doesn’t guarantee delivery of data packets, best efforts model; data integrity handled by TCP or by thenetwork
  • Variants
    • IPv4 (IP Version 4)
    • IPv6 (IP Version 6)

IPv4

  • Fourth Major Version & First Version for use.
  • Uses 32-bit addressing Scheme, 4,294,967,296 (232) possible addresses.
  • Has two parts – Network ID and Host ID, identified using Subnet Mask.
  • IP Address assignments can be Classful or Classless.

Public IP

  • Public IP addresses are required for communication on the Internet (Public Network).
  • Controlled by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
  • IANA is a department operated by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers).  
  • IANA allocates Public IP addresses to RIR (Regional Internet Registries) globally as address blocks.
  • Public IP addresses are assigned by Internet Service Providers.

Private IP

  • Private IP addresses are reserved for use in private networks (LAN) like home & office networks.
  • Private IP address assignments are controlled by the administrator.

Note: Computers/Devices assigned with Private IP addresses cannot communicate with computers/devices assigned with Public IP addresses and Vice Versa; require NAT (Network Address Translation) for communication in such scenarios.

Classful Networks is an addressing scheme introduced in 1981, address space divided into 5 classes:

IP Address Class A, B & C – Network & Host Portions

  • Class A
    • First bit set to “0”, leaving the range from 0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 for network ID.
    • Number of Networks: 27– 2 = 126.
    • Number of Hosts Per Network:224 – 2 = 16,777,214.
    • x.x.x reserved for loopback purposes.
    • Default Subnet Mask: 255.0.0.0 .
    • Private IP Address range: 0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255
  • Class B
    • First bit set to “10”, leaving the range from 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.255.255 for network ID
    • Number of Networks: 214= 16,384
    • Number of Hosts Per Network:216 – 2 = 65,534
    • Default Subnet Mask: 255.255.0.0
    • Private IP Address range: 16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
  • Class C
    • First bit set to “110”, leaving the range from 192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255 for network ID
    • Number of Networks: 221= 2,097,152
    • Number of Hosts Per Network: 28-2 = 254
    • Default Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
    • Private IP Address range: 168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255
  • Class D
    • First bit set to “1110”, leaving the range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 for network ID
    • Reserved for multicast, cannot be used
  • Class E
    • First bit set to “1111”, leaving the range from 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255 for network ID
    • Reserved, cannot be used

Note: Cannot use all zeros or ones (binary) for host/network ID.

Special IP addresses:

  • 255.255.255 – Used for broadcasting, particularly DHCP clients.
  • 254.x.x – Reserved for APIPA.

Note: Understanding IP addressing may take time, additional tutorials may be explored.

CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing)

  • Replacement for classful method of allocating IP addresses and routing.
  • Based on variable-length subnet masking (VLSM).
  • Network & Host ID determined based on Subnet Mask as assigned by an admin.
  • Effective management of IP address and reduced (or optimized) entries in routing tables.

To understand, imagine a network with 10 computers:

If Classful method is used, then for:

IP address range: 10.x.x.x

Default Subnet Mask: 255.0.0.0

# of IP addresses available: 16,777,214

If # of IP hosts or computers = 10

Wastage: 16,777,214 – 10 = 16,777,204

In case of CIDR, VLSM applied:

IP address range: 10.x.x.x

If Subnet Mask (VLSM) = 255.255.255.0

# of IP addresses available: 254

Wastage: 254 – 10 = 244

Converting Binary to Decimal, Simple Method

Reference: Power Factor & Value

  • If True, then carry forward the actual value
  • If False, then leave the value (Write as “0”)

Example 01: All bits = 1

Example 02: All bits = 0

Example 03: Selective bits = 1

Example to understand Network & Host portions of an IP Address

Computer A

IP address: 10.1.1.1

Subnet Mask: 255.0.0.0

 

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

IP

10

1

1

1

Subnet Mask

255

0

0

0

IP Decimal

0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Subnet Mask Decimal

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Network ID

0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Network ID

10

0

0

0

Host ID

0

1

1

1

Computer B

IP address: 10.1.1.2

Subnet Mask: 255.0.0.0

 

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

IP

10

1

1

2

Subnet Mask

255

0

0

0

IP Decimal

0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

Subnet Mask Decimal

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Network ID

0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Network ID

10

0

0

0

Host ID

0

1

1

2

Computer C

IP address: 11.1.1.1

Subnet Mask: 255.0.0.0

 

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

IP

11

1

1

1

Subnet Mask

255

0

0

0

IP Decimal

0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Subnet Mask Decimal

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Network ID

0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Network ID

11

0

0

0

Host ID

0

1

1

1

 

Network ID

Host ID

Computer A

10

1.1.1

Computer B

10

1.1.2

Computer C

11

1.1.1

In above example, network ID’s for computer A & B is 10 indicating they are on same logical network; computer c is on a different logical network hence require IP routing to communicate with computer A and/or B.

Worksheet

A: Convert Binary to Decimal

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

IP

00001010

00000000

00000000

00000000

10.0.0.0

00001010

00000000

00000000

00000001

10.0.0.1

10001000

00000000

00000000

00001000

 

01010101

10001000

00100000

00001001

 

11001100

00110011

00111100

00001100

 

Convert Decimal to Binary

IP

Octet 1

Octet 2

Octet 3

Octet 4

10.0.0.1

00001010

00000000

00000000

00000001

202.64.32.8

       

12.4.8.16

       

192.168.1.1

       

222.22.2.22

       

Identify Network & Host ID for IP addresses

IP address

Subnet Mask

Network ID

Host ID

10.1.5.1

255.0.0.0

   

10.6.1.5

255.0.0.0

   

10.10.10.5

255.255.0.0

   

10.10.11.6

255.255.0.0

   
  • View all IP Addresses:
    • CMD > ipconfig

Output listing a) IPv4 Address, b)Subnet Mask & c) Default Gateway

  • View all IP Addresses (all details):
    • CMD > ipconfig /all

Output listed a) IPv4 Address assigned by the DHCP server, b) Subnet Mask, c) Lease details, d) Gateway’s IP, e) DHCP Server’s IP address & f) DNS Server’s IP address

  • View IP addresses for all connections:
    • CMD > netsh interface ip show config

Output listed using NETSH

  • CMD > netsh interface ipv4 show addresses

Output listing IPv4 addresses

  • View IPv4 addresses:
    • CMD > Powershell >Get-NetIPAddress -AddressFamily IPv4

Output listing IPv4 Addresses for Wired (Left) & Wireless (Right) Connections

  • View network configuration, including usable interfaces, IP addresses, and DNS servers:
    • CMD > Powershell >Get-NetIPConfiguration -All

Output listing network configuration, including usable interfaces, IP addresses, and DNS servers

IPv6

  • Most recent version of the Internet Protocol.
  • 128 bit addressing scheme.
  • 2128, or approximately 3.4×1038
  • Designed to replace IPv4.
  • IPv6 hosts can configure themselves automatically.
  • Represented in 8 groups, example: 2001:0db8:85a3:0042:1000:8a2e:0370:7334, displayed through 4 hexadecimal values.

IPv6: Address in 8 groups and 4 hexadecimal values

Note: IPv6 is bit complex for beginners, not covered here.

  • View IP address:
    • CMD > ipconfig /all

Output listing IPv6 Address

  • View only IPv6 Addresses:
    • CMD > netsh interface ipv6 show addresses

Output listing IPv6 Addresses

  • View IPv6 Addresses:
    • CMD > Powershell > Get-NetIPAddress -AddressFamily IPv6

Output listing IPv6 Addresses

DHCP

IP addresses are assigned manually (Static) or automated using DHCP service (Dynamic) by an administrator; assigning IP addresses manually to each computer in a medium or large network is tedious (and increases chances of duplicates due to human error), and using DHCP service is the preferred method as it reduces administrative efforts. Network configuration details such as addresses of DNS servers, IP Gateway, etc. can be pushed along to IP clients.

DHCP is widely used in almost every home & office network. DHCP is also used in places that require temporary connectivity such as hotspots (IP addresses are reassigned to different clients time-to-time).

  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, automates IP address assignments.
  • DHCP Service is usually included in Wi-Fi/Home Routers, Server Operating Systems, Enterprise Routers & Layer 3 Switchesbut require specific technical expertise to configure depending on the product. DHCP service is mostly automated on devices designed for home use, requiring no administrative effort or technical expertise.
  • Connection-less, UDP Ports 67 & 68.
  • IP addresses are “leased” for a particular duration (like 2 hour or 2 days) as set by the administrator. IP assigned through DHCP are renewed once the lease expires. There are no guarantees that a DHCP client will receive the same IP as before during renewals (except if it is reserved through a specific mechanism). Lease duration may be adjusted depending on business cases; for example, shorter lease duration like 60 minutes can be set for hot-spots or guest networks at office/home.

DHCP Server (service) 192.168.2.1, allocating IP address to wired and wireless clients from the DHCP range 192.168.1.2 to 192.168.1.254

In above scenario:

  • DHCP Server is assigned the IP 192.168.2.1.
  • DHCP range is configured to assign 192.168.2.2 to168.2.50 for its clients.
  • Wired clients receive IP address from DHCP server.
  • Wireless AP is assigned  with static IP 192.168.2.5
  • Wireless clients receive IP address from DHCP Server through the Wireless Access Point.

DHCP Process (DORA)

 
  1. DHCPDISCOVER – Client broadcasts, requesting for IP.
  2. DHCPOFFER – DHCP Server(s) responds with IP.
  3. DHCPREQUEST – DHCP client replies to DHCP server that has sent first (if there are multiple DHCP Servers).
  4. DHCPACK – DHCP Server sends acknowledgment to DHCP client, based on its selection.

Link-Local Address

If there are NO IP address assigned (static or dynamic), modern operating systems self-assign an IP address in the range of 169.254.x.x (Subnet mask set as 255.255.0.0) automatically.  This facility is designed as a fallback mechanism for devices to self-assign non-conflicting IP address automatically in order to communicate with each other.

  • Reserved IP range: 169.254.0.0 – 169.254.255.255.
  • Also referred to as “Auto-IP” or “APIPA”.
  • Range can also be manually assigned by the administrator.

For example:

  1. DHCP is set to assign 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254.
  2. DHCP server fails to issue IP addresses to its clients.
  3. DHCP clients self-assign non-conflicting unique IP addresses automatically (DHCP Client 1 may self-assign 169.254.1.12, DHCP Client 2 may self-assign 169.254.3.30 and so on).
  4. DHCP clients can communicate with each other (but may not browse the Internet, etc.)

Note: APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing) is a term used in Microsoft Windows.

  • Check if a computer is configured as a DHCP Client
    • CMD > ipconfig /all Check status: DHCP Enabled: Yes(Indicates its a DHCP client)

Output listing a) DHCP status

Example

  • IPv4 address: IP address assigned by the DHCP Server (from DHCP pool 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254).
  • Subnet Mask: Subnet Mask assigned by the DHCP Server.
  • DHCP Lease:
    • Lease Obtained: Start date & time as set on DHCP Server.
    • Lease Expires: End date & time as set on DHCP Server.
  • Default Gateway: IP through which packets to be routed, if the host is on an external network. To communicate with example.com or example.org, 192.168.1.2 will send the packet to 192.168.1.1 which in turn is sent to external host/network.
  • DHCP Server: IP address of the DHCP Server.
  • DNS Server: IP address of the DNS server. To resolve example.com’s IP address, 192.168.1.2 will send name resolution request to 192.168.1.1; 192.168.1.1 will process the request (internal cache or external DNS) and reply to 192.168.1.2.

Note: IP address range, Subnet Mask, DHCP Lease duration & DNS Server values can be set on a DHCP Server or any device such as a SOHO Router that supports DHCP Service.

  • To check if DHCP is enabled or disabled
    • CMD > Powershell > Get-NetIPInterface

Output listing DHCP Status (last column)

  • To check DHCP status for a particular adapter
    • CMD > Powershell > Get-NetIPInterface -InterfaceIndex IFINDEX#

Output listing status for a specific adapter using IFINDEX

Microsoft Windows 7 & above include facility to trace network events, through the NETSH utility; this facility can be helpful in understanding and diagnosing network related issues.

  • Use NETSH to collect & view DHCP events
  • CMD > netsh dhcpclient trace dump

Input to create DHCP trace dump

  • View DHCP log file: C:\Windows\System32\LogFiles\WMI\

Folder containing log files

  • Open dhcpv4trace.txt & dhcpv6trace.txt in a text editor to observe DHCP process

Computer Names (Microsoft Windows)

  • Each computer must have a unique name.
  • Also referred to as “hostname”, “NetBIOS name” or “Computer Name”.
  • Limited to 15 characters.
  • To View or change Computer name:
    • START > RUN > SYSDM.CPL

  • Select “Change…” (If computer name needs to be changed).
  • Specify a name under “Computer name:” (for example: LAB01).
  • Select “OK” Twice and Select “Close”.
  • Restart the computer.
  • View Computer name:
    • CMD > hostname

Output displaying Computer Name

PING is a command line utility used for testing reach-ability of a host. PING uses ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) to send echo request packets, reports statistical summary including round-trip duration, packet loss & errors. This utility works at Network Layer.

ICMP Reference (https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc792).

To check local computer (IPv4):

    • CMD > ping -4 COMPUTERNAME(or)

Observe computer name resolved to an IP address & replies

  • CMD > ping -4 localhost (or)

Output indicates successful replies, observe LOCALHOST resolved to 127.0.0.1

  • CMD > ping 127.0.0.1 (or)

Output based on default loopback address

  • CMD > ping 128.128.200

Observe results based on any IPv4 loopback range

  • To check local computer (IPv6):
    • CMD > ping COMPUTERNAME (or)

Observe computer name resolved to an IPv6 address & replies

  • CMD > ping -6 LOCALHOST

Output indicates successful replies, observe LOCALHOST resolved to ::1 (loopback address for IPv6)

Interpreting PING Echo replies, a general approach (additional steps required to understand specific issue):

  • Reply from…- Indicates the host has replied.
  • Request Timed Out- Indicates a variety of situations:
    • Firewall blocking request.
    • Remote host configured not to respond.
    • Remote host may be down.
  • Destination Host Unreachable- Indicates no route to the remote host.
  • Network Unreachable- Indicates a there is no route to that particular network.
  • To check a domain name using IPv4
    • CMD > ping -4 domainname

Input to test connectivity to a remote device or computer using IPv4

  • To check a domain name using IPv6 (If available)
    • CMD > ping -6 domainname

Input to test connectivity to a remote device or computer using IPv6

  • To check using a IPv4 address (and to resolve to a domain name)
    • CMD > ping -a IPv4

Input to test connectivity using IPv4 address, and to resolve associated domain name

PING limits 4 echo requests by default, which can be increased or decreased.

  • For 5 requests (IPv4)
    • CMD >ping -4 -n # domainname

Input to limit max. 5 requests

  • For unlimited (until interruption) requests (IPv4) – Use CTRL+C to stop
    • CMD > ping -4 -t domainname

Output listing 6 replies, a) break applied using CTRL+C

IP Routing

  • Process of data transfer by selecting a path between networks.
  • Routers exchange data to maintain a route table.
  • Routers route packets from source to destination based on the forwarding table.
  • Types
    • Static Routing
      • Packets are routed only through fixed path set by an administrator.
      • Packets may not reach the destination if there is problem in fixed path.
      • Suitable for smaller networks or network setups that never change.
    • Dynamic Routing
      • Path automatically determined based on routing table.
      • Packets may take different routes to reach the destination.
      • Alternate path selected automatically if there are traffic or network problems.
      • Suitable for medium, large & very large networks.
      • Utilize protocols such as RIP, OSPF, etc.

Scenario: Two logical networks (192.168.2.x & 192.168.3.x), connected via Router

  • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) uses link state routing algorithm to find the best shortest route; widely used on large enterprise and service provider networks.
  • RIP (Routing Information Protocol) uses hop count to find shortest path.

Note: “Hop” refers to passing of packet from one network to another, in general lesser the hop faster the network performance as the path is shorter.

Packets are routed to external IP networks, through the IP specified in “Default Gateway”.

  • View Gateway IP:
    • CMD >ipconfig /all

Output listing a) Default Gateway IP address

ROUTE command is used for viewing, setting up & modifying (for static routing) routing tables.

  • View Route Table (IPv4):
    • CMD > route -4 print

Output listing IPv4 route table (cache)

  • View Route Table (IPv6):
    • CMD > route -6 print

Output listing IPv6 Route Table (Cache)

  • View Routing Table (IPv4 & IPv6):
    • CMD > netstat -r

Output displaying IPv4 & IPv6 table

TRACERT (also known as Trace Route) is a command used for viewing route information and transit delays. A packet may take multiple hops from source to destination, which can be viewed through TRACERT.

A packet may take different path from source to destination

  • View route taken (IPv4):
    • CMD > tracert -4 domainname

Output listing route taken by a packet using IPv4

  • View route taken (IPv6):
    • CMD > tracert -6 domainname

Output listing route taken by a packet using IPv6

  • View route without displaying domain names
    • CMD > tracert -ddomainname

Output listing route without resolving domain names

  • Set maximum hops (IPv4)
    • CMD >  tracert -4 -h #hopsdomainname

Output listing with results – maximum 5 hops

PATHPING is a more than a combination of both PING & TRACERT, provides detailed statistics between each path from source to destination; helps in understanding routing & related issues such as packet loss & delays.

  • View statistics (IPv4):
    • CMD > pathping -4 domainame

Output listing results of route & packet statistics for IPv4

  • View statistics (IPv6):
    • CMD > pathping -6 domainname

Output listing results of route & packet statistics for IPv6

Quiz 05

1. ‘Set of rules for communication’ refers to _____.

A. Protocol B. Service C. Interface D. Network Device

2. Protocols at Layer 3 _____.

A. IP B. ICMP C. IGMP D. DSL

3. _____ layer of the OSI model refers to logical addressing and routing.

A. Physical B. Data-link C. Network D. Session

4. Examples of Proprietary protocols:

A. NetBEUI B. IPX/SPX C. AppleTalk D. All of the above

5. Examples of Open standard protocol:

A. NetBEUI B. IPX/SPX C. AppleTalk D. TCP/IP

6. Acronym – NetBEUI.

A. NetBIOS Extended User Interface
B. Network Extended User Interface
C. NetBIOS Expanded User Interface
D. Network Expanded User Interface

7. Acronym – IPX/SPX.

A. Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
B. Intranetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
C. Internetwork Protocol Exchange/Sequenced Protocol Exchange
D. Intranetwork Protocol Exchange/Sequenced Protocol Exchange

8. Acronym – TCP/IP.

A. Transmission Connection Protocol / Internet Protocol
B. Transmission Control Packet / Internet Packet
C. Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
D. Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Packet

9. Advantages of TCP/IP.

A. Open Standard
B. Multiple Network framework
C. Routable
D. All of the above

10. Proprietary protocol used in early Microsoft Windows networks:

A. NetBEUI B. IPX C. IPv4 D. AppleTalk

 

11. Proprietary protocol used in Apple computer networks:

A. NetBEUI B. IPX C. IPv4 D. AppleTalk

12. Proprietary protocol used on Novell NetWare networks:

A. NetBEUI B. IPX C. IPv4 D. AppleTalk

13. IPv4 uses _____ bit addressing scheme.

A. 4 B. 8 C. 32 D. 64

14. IPv6 uses _____ bit addressing scheme.

A. 8 B. 32 C. 64 D. 128

15. _____ is the entity that oversees global IP address allocation.

A. IEEE B. IETF C. IANA D. ISO

16. Acronym – IANA.

A. Internet Assigned Numeric Authority
B. Intranet Assigned Numbers Authority
C. Internet Automated Numbers Authority
D. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

17. Maximum number of IP addresses in IPv4

A. 65536 B. 4294967296 C. 256 D. 16

18. Maximum number of IP addresses in IPv6:

A. 4294967296
B. 340282366920938463463374607431768211456
C. 42949672964294967296
D. 34028236692093846346

19. Class reserved for multicasting:

A. Class A B. Class B C. Class C D. Class D

20. IP address range for Class A:

A. 0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255
B. 128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255
C. 192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255
D. 224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255

21. IP address range for Class B:

A. 0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255
B. 128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255
C. 192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255
D. 224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255

22. IP address range for Class C:

A. 0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255
B. 128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255
C. 192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255
D. 224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255

23. IP address range for Class D:

A. 0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255
B. 128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255
C. 192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255
D. 224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255

24. IP address range for Class E:

A. 128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255
B. 192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255
C. 224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255
D. 240.0.0.0 – 255.255.255.255

25. _____ addresses are used for communicating between computers on the Internet.

A. Multicast B. Private C. Public D. Broadcast

26. _____ addresses are used for communicating between computers on a LAN.

A. Multicast B. Private C. Public D. Broadcast

27. IP addresses reserved for private networks:

A. 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 B. 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
C. 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 D. All of the above

28. _____ is used for identifying the network and host ID portions of an IP address.

A. Gateway B. Subnet Mask C. DNS Address D. WINS Address

29. Range reserved for loopback addresses:

A. 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 B. 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.2
C. 127.0.0.1 – 127.255.255.255 D. 240.0.0.0 – 255.255.255.255

30. Default subnet mask for Class A range of IP addresses:

A. 255.0.0.0 B. 255.255.0.0 C. 255.255.255.0 D. 255.255.255.255

31. Default subnet mask for Class B range of IP addresses:

A. 255.0.0.0 B. 255.255.0.0 C. 255.255.255.0 D. 255.255.255.255


32. Default subnet mask for Class C range of IP addresses:

A. 255.0.0.0 B. 255.255.0.0 C. 255.255.255.0 D. 255.255.255.255

33. 169. 255.255.255.255 address represents:

A. A Unicast address B. A Multicast address
C. A Broadcast address D. A Gateway address

34. Example of an IPv6 address:

A. 123.123.123.123
B. 2001:0db8:85a3:0042:1000:8a2e:0370:7334
C. A0:10:20:10:12:14
D. V6:123.123.123.133

35. Protocol used for automating IP configuration:

A. ARP B. DHCP C. DNS D. WINS

36. _____ are protocols that do not resolve names to IP addresses.

A. DDNS B. DNS C. WINS D. None

37. _____ indicates network messages or timeouts at layer 3.

A. ARP B. ICMP C. IGMP D. BOOTP

38. DHCP Sequence:

A. Offer; Discover; Request; Acknowledge
B. Discover; Request; Acknowledge; Offer
C. Discover; Offer; Request; Acknowledge
D. Request; Offer; Discover; Acknowledge

39. Purpose of APIPA:

A. Assigns IP address to each computer from a SOHO Router
B. Self-assigns each computer a private IP address
C. Assigns DNS addresses on a DHCP enabled network
D. Routes packets from one logical network to another

40. Acronym – APIPA.

A. Automatic Public IP Addressing B. Activated Private IP Addressing
C. Activated Public IP Addressing D. Automatic Private IP Addressing

41. Range reserved for APIPA:

A. 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 B. 192.168.0.0. – 192.168.255.255
C. 169.254.1.0 – 169.254.254.255 D. 172.16.0.0 – 172.16.255.255

42. Command utility for viewing IP address:

A. GETMAC B. IPCONFIG C. TELNET D. IPMAC

43. Utility & Syntax for viewing complete IP configuration:

A. IPMAC /Complete B. IPMAC /ALL
C. IPCONFIG /Complete D. IPCONFIG /ALL

44. Command line utility for checking network connectivity:

A. NETSTAT B. IPCONFIG C. PING D. NBTSTAT

45. PING uses _____ protocol.

A. IP B. ICMP C. IGMP D. HTTP

46. Syntax for unlimited packets:

A. PING address -n B. PING address -t
C. PING address -l D. PING address -p

47. Command line utility for managing ARP cache table:

A. IP2MAC B. ARP C. PING D. All of the above

48. Syntax for testing local machine’s IP:

A. Ping 127.0.0.1 B. Ping localhost C. Ping 127.1.2.3 D. All of the above

49. Syntax for releasing IP address:

A. IPCONFIG /RELEASE B. IPCONFIG /RENEW
C. IPCONFIG /ALL D. IPCONFIG /REFRESH

50. Syntax for renewing IP address:

A. IPCONFIG /RELEASE B. IPCONFIG /RENEW
C. IPCONFIG /ALL D. IPCONFIG /REFRESH

51. Acronym – CIDR.

A. Classful Inter Domain Routing B. Classful Intra Domain Routing
C. Classless Inter Domain Routing D. Classless Intra Domain Routing

52. Purpose of CIDR:

A. Manipulates MAC address B. Manipulates DNS address
C. Replaces IPv4 with IPv6 D. Allows variable Network and host addresses

53. In _____ routing packets are transmitted through fixed routes.

A. Dynamic B. Static C. Variable D. Fixed

54. In _____ routing routing of packets are determined by routers.

A. Dynamic B. Static C. Variable D. Fixed

55. Command line utility for viewing route and to measure transit delays of a packet:

A. TRACERT B. PATHPING C. ROUTE D. IPCONFIG

 

56. Command line utility for viewing and manipulating routing tables:

A. TRACERT B. PATHPING C. ROUTE D. IPCONFIG

57. Command line utility that combines the power of both PING and TRACERT:

A. TRACEPING B. TRACEPATH C. PINGPATH D. PATHPING

58. Syntax for viewing routing table:

A. Route Print B. Router Print C. Routing Print D. Routable Print

59. Examples of routable protocols:

A. IPX/SPX B. TCP/IP C. OSPF D. RIP

60. Examples of routing protocols:

A. OSPF B. RIP C. IS-IS D. All of the above

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