Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes


Through introduction of basic concepts and handful utilities, this guide aims to build a very basic foundation of networking. Though not designed for preparation of any certification, we hope this guide can assist in building basic knowledge on networking. Ideally readers are expected to have very minimal knowledge, although not a strict requirement. Some topics are covered at basic level intentionally.

Commands (including syntax) & utilities should work across most versions of Microsoft Windows; if you prefer to practice using other operating systems, please refer respective product documentation for equivalent commands, utilities & syntax.

Screenshots are trimmed & edited, actual results will vary time-to-time, computer-to-computer depending on several factors. Product images, Illustrations & screenshots for reference purposes only.

  • Handful practical exercises are included, refer Appendix.
  • Worksheets are included for comparing products; readers are encouraged to collect and compare different products for understanding features.
  • Quiz is included (with answer keys) for enhancing learning experience.


The information provided within this guide is for general informational purposes only. While we try to keep the information up-to-date and correct, there are no representations or warranties, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the information, products, services, or related graphics contained in this guide for any purpose. Any use of this information is at your own risk.

The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information within this book was correct at time of publication. The author does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or disruption caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions result from accident, negligence, or any other cause.


  • SOHO/Wi-Fi Router
  • 2 to 4 computers (Microsoft Windows)
  • Active Internet Connection

Recommended Setup: One Router connected to Internet, 2 desktops (Wired) and 2 Laptops (Wireless)

Assumed setup in this guide are based on popular SOHO Router settings:

A. Router’s IP:
B. DHCP Range: –
a) Desktop 1 assigned
b) Desktop 2 assigned
c) Laptop 1 assigned
d) Laptop 2 assigned
C. WAN Connectivity: DSL or Cable Modem
D. Wi-Fi: IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac

Important: Most SOHO Routers have the private IP range 192.168.x.x set by default; it is recommended to either login or, refer product manual to find out the correct IP range & settings.


  • Try with different IPv4 range/addresses once the exercises are clearly understood.
  • Use different domains for testing, do NOT abuse domains, servers, hosts and/or networks in anyway.
  • Set to “Private Network” (Microsoft Windows) instead of “Public Network”.
  • Allow commands, utilities & services in Firewall settings (as required).
  • Using | more at the end of certain commands displays one screen at a time; /?, help displays help.

Color Codes

Indicates commands to be used as it is.

Indicates values to be replaced.

Indicates syntax is optional.

Commands & Utilities

For basic learning experience, commonly used command line utilities are included:


In addition, WMI & Powershell is introduced at very minimal level which may be explored on your own later.



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