Networking Fundamentals, Quick Notes


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Through introduction of basic concepts and handful utilities, this guide aims to build a very basic foundation of networking. Though not designed for preparation of any certification, we hope this guide can assist in building basic knowledge on networking. Ideally readers are expected to have very minimal knowledge, although not a strict requirement. Some topics are covered at basic level intentionally.

Commands (including syntax) & utilities should work across most versions of Microsoft Windows; if you prefer to practice using other operating systems, please refer respective product documentation for equivalent commands, utilities & syntax.

Screenshots are trimmed & edited, actual results will vary time-to-time, computer-to-computer depending on several factors. Product images, Illustrations & screenshots for reference purposes only.

  • Handful practical exercises are included, refer Appendix.
  • Worksheets are included for comparing products; readers are encouraged to collect and compare different products for understanding features.
  • Quiz is included (with answer keys) for enhancing learning experience.


The information provided within this guide is for general informational purposes only. While we try to keep the information up-to-date and correct, there are no representations or warranties, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the information, products, services, or related graphics contained in this guide for any purpose. Any use of this information is at your own risk.

The author has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information within this book was correct at time of publication. The author does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or disruption caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions result from accident, negligence, or any other cause.

Table of Contents
Introduction 6
Core Concepts 7
OSI Model 15
Connectivity Options 20
Ethernet 20
Network Topology 21
Serial Port 22
Parallel Port 23
Infrared 24
Bluetooth 25
Twisted Pair Cable 26
Network Interface Card (NIC) 29
Fiber Optic Card & Cable 43
Hub 45
Repeater 45
Network Bridge 45
Switch (a.k.a Network Switch) 46
Wi-Fi 55
Wireless NIC 60
Access Point 64
Powerline 73
USB Ports 75
IEEE 1394 76
Router 81
Protocols 82
Proprietary Protocols 83
Open Standard 83
IP 88
IPv4 89
Converting Binary to Decimal, Simple Method 92
IPv6 99
DHCP 102
IP Routing 114
TCP & UDP 129
Ports & Sockets 130
Application Layer Protocols 132
Name Resolution 141
DNS 143
Domain Names 145
DDNS 147
Wide Area Networks 157
Dial-Up Networking 158
ISDN 159
Leased Line 159
DSL 160
Cable Internet 162
WiMAX 163
NAT (Concept) 164
Firewall 165
SOHO Router 175
VPN 178
APPENDIX: Utilities & Services 192
General Practices & Tips 206
OSI Model based Troubleshooting (Basic) 207
Using Device Manager 210
Server Message Block 218
Using Troubleshooter 221
Answer Keys 222
Summary 247

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Networking Fundamentals​, Quick Notes – Introduction


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